Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.


I’ve been on a diet for two weeks and all I’ve lost is two weeks.

brain-cells

Ever since I had my first biology class, back in 3rd grade, I’ve been thaught that brain cells do not regenerate. I’ve always thought that we are all born with certain number of neurons, and you gradually lose them as you grow old, but that no new cells are born after we are. They said we could accelerate the rate at which they die, depending on our lifestyle, but there was no way to get the number back up to the original.

Well, apparently they were wrong. Sandrine Thuret presents some findings that suggest the hippocampus, a brain structure that controls memory and emotions, can generate 700 new neurons per day.  According to her, learning new things, exercise and sex (yes!) can increase the formation of new brain cells. On the contrary, sleep depravation and stress can decrease the creation of new brain cells. Alcohol consumption also decreases the production of new cells, but there is hope in red wine, as resveratrol, found in red wine, can promote the survival of the new cells. Food and nutrition also play a big role  in this process.

So if you think, like I do, that you haven’t been good to your tenants from upstairs, pay attention to Sandrine. Here I leave you with the transcriptioin of Sandrine’s presentation at TED. To watch her presentation click on the image of Sandrine just below.

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(click here to watch Sandrine Thuret on TED)

Can we, as adults, grow new nerve cells? There’s still some confusion about that question, as this is a fairly new field of research. For example, I was talking to one of my colleagues, Robert, who is an oncologist, and he was telling me, “Sandrine, this is puzzling. Some of my patients that have been told they are cured of their cancer still develop symptoms of depression.” And I responded to him, “Well, from my point of view that makes sense. The drug you give to your patients that stops the cancer cells multiplying also stops the newborn neurons being generated in their brain.” And then Robert looked at me like I was crazy and said, “But Sandrine, these are adult patients — adults do not grow new nerve cells.” And much to his surprise, I said, “Well actually, we do.” And this is a phenomenon that we call neurogenesis.

Now Robert is not a neuroscientist, and when he went to medical school he was not taught what we know now — that the adult brain can generate new nerve cells. So Robert, you know, being the good doctor that he is, wanted to come to my lab to understand the topic a little bit better. And I took him for a tour of one of the most exciting parts of the brain when it comes to neurogenesis — and this is the hippocampus. So this is this gray structure in the center of the brain. And what we’ve known already for very long, is that this is important for learning, memory, mood and emotion. However, what we have learned more recently is that this is one of the unique structures of the adult brain where new neurons can be generated. And if we slice through the hippocampus and zoom in, what you actually see here in blue is a newborn neuron in an adult mouse brain. So when it comes to the human brain — my colleague Jonas Frisén from the Karolinska Institutet, has estimated that we produce 700 new neurons per day in the hippocampus. You might think this is not much, compared to the billions of neurons we have. But by the time we turn 50, we will have all exchanged the neurons we were born with in that structure with adult-born neurons.

So why are these new neurons important and what are their functions? First, we know that they’re important for learning and memory. And in the lab we have shown that if we block the ability of the adult brain to produce new neurons in the hippocampus, then we block certain memory abilities. And this is especially new and true for spatial recognition — so like, how you navigate your way in the city.

We are still learning a lot, and neurons are not only important for memory capacity, but also for the quality of the memory. And they will have been helpful to add time to our memory and they will help differentiate very similar memories, like: how do you find your bike that you park at the station every day in the same area, but in a slightly different position?

And more interesting to my colleague Robert is the research we have been doing on neurogenesis and depression. So in an animal model of depression, we have seen that we have a lower level of neurogenesis. And if we give antidepressants, then we increase the production of these newborn neurons, and we decrease the symptoms of depression, establishing a clear link between neurogenesis and depression. But moreover, if you just block neurogenesis, then you block the efficacy of the antidepressant. So by then, Robert had understood that very likely his patients were suffering from depression even after being cured of their cancer, because the cancer drug had stopped newborn neurons from being generated. And it will take time to generate new neurons that reach normal functions.

So, collectively, now we think we have enough evidence to say that neurogenesis is a target of choice if we want to improve memory formation or mood, or even prevent the decline associated with aging, or associated with stress.

So the next question is: can we control neurogenesis? The answer is yes. And we are now going to do a little quiz. I’m going to give you a set of behaviors and activities, and you tell me if you think they will increase neurogenesis or if they will decrease neurogenesis. Are we ready? OK, let’s go.

So what about learning? Increasing? Yes. Learning will increase the production of these new neurons.

How about stress? Yes, stress will decrease the production of new neurons in the hippocampus.

How about sleep deprivation? Indeed, it will decrease neurogenesis.

How about sex? Oh, wow!

(Laughter)

Yes, you are right, it will increase the production of new neurons. However, it’s all about balance here. We don’t want to fall in a situation —

(Laughter)

about too much sex leading to sleep deprivation.

(Laughter)

How about getting older? So the neurogenesis rate will decrease as we get older, but it is still occurring.

And then finally, how about running? I will let you judge that one by yourself.

So this is one of the first studies that was carried out by one of my mentors, Rusty Gage from the Salk Institute, showing that the environment can have an impact on the production of new neurons. And here you see a section of the hippocampus of a mouse that had no running wheel in its cage. And the little black dots you see are actually newborn neurons-to-be. And now, you see a section of the hippocampus of a mouse that had a running wheel in its cage. So you see the massive increase of the black dots representing the new neurons-to-be.

So activity impacts neurogenesis, but that’s not all. What you eat will have an effect on the production of new neurons in the hippocampus. So here we have a sample of diet — of nutrients that have been shown to have efficacy. And I’m just going to point a few out to you: Calorie restriction of 20 to 30 percent will increase neurogenesis. Intermittent fasting — spacing the time between your meals — will increase neurogenesis. Intake of flavonoids, which are contained in dark chocolate or blueberries, will increase neurogenesis. Omega-3 fatty acids, present in fatty fish, like salmon, will increase the production of these new neurons. Conversely, a diet rich in high saturated fat will have a negative impact on neurogenesis. Ethanol — intake of alcohol — will decrease neurogenesis. However, not everything is lost; resveratrol, which is contained in red wine, has been shown to promote the survival of these new neurons. So next time you are at a dinner party, you might want to reach for this possibly “neurogenesis-neutral” drink.

(Laughter)

And then finally, let me point out the last one — a quirky one. So Japanese groups are fascinated with food textures, and they have shown that actually soft diet impairs neurogenesis, as opposed to food that requires mastication — chewing — or crunchy food.

So all of this data, where we need to look at the cellular level, has been generated using animal models. But this diet has also been given to human participants, and what we could see is that the diet modulates memory and mood in the same direction as it modulates neurogenesis, such as: calorie restriction will improve memory capacity, whereas a high-fat diet will exacerbate symptoms of depression — as opposed to omega-3 fatty acids, which increase neurogenesis, and also help to decrease the symptoms of depression. So we think that the effect of diet on mental health, on memory and mood, is actually mediated by the production of the new neurons in the hippocampus. And it’s not only what you eat, but it’s also the texture of the food, when you eat it and how much of it you eat.

On our side — neuroscientists interested in neurogenesis — we need to understand better the function of these new neurons, and how we can control their survival and their production. We also need to find a way to protect the neurogenesis of Robert’s patients. And on your side — I leave you in charge of your neurogenesis.

Thank you.

(Applause)

Margaret Heffernan: Fantastic research, Sandrine. Now, I told you you changed my life — I now eat a lot of blueberries.

Sandrine Thuret: Very good.

MH: I’m really interested in the running thing. Do I have to run? Or is it really just about aerobic exercise, getting oxygen to the brain? Could it be any kind of vigorous exercise?

ST: So for the moment, we can’t really say if it’s just the running itself, but we think that anything that indeed will increase the production — or moving the blood flow to the brain, should be beneficial.

MH: So I don’t have to get a running wheel in my office?

ST: No, you don’t!

MH: Oh, what a relief! That’s wonderful. Sandrine Thuret, thank you so much.

ST: Thank you, Margaret.

(Applause)

Sometimes envisioning a life without cars is just as simple as doing it.

The narrow street in front of Steven Clays’s house in Ghent, Belgium, is usually lined with parked cars and full of traffic. But for most of this summer, it turned into a makeshift park.

In the middle of the former traffic lane—now covered with astroturf and potted plants—neighbors sat at picnic tables and drank beer while kids played nearby. Parking spaces were covered with slides and pop-up bars.

The street was one of 22 in Ghent to become a “Living Street” for 10 weeks, beginning in late May. The project began three years ago, when the city of Ghent asked a group of citizens to imagine a sustainable future for the city. Their vision: A network of car-free zones built around central squares, with rapid transit bike lanes, public transit, and neighbors talking in the street.

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“We realized that only a vision by itself would not change the world,” say Dries Gysels and Pieter Deschamps from Lab of Troy, a “creative lab” for urban solutions. “To make it really happen, we launched concrete experiments, such as ‘Leefstraten,’ the living street, and tried to make our dreams of the city of tomorrow visible today.”

The Living Streets experiment began in 2013, driven by Lab of Troy, and gets larger each summer, as neighbors like Clays volunteer to plan and run the temporary parks in front of their homes.

“The main reason why we wanted to it was the traffic situation on our street,” says Clays. “It’s a residential neighborhood, but there are a lot of cars driving fast. We asked already the city council to do something about it, to no avail.”

It also solved the need for more public space in the area. “The road connects to a small park, so the street became like a very big park,” he says. “Neighbors saw each other more. More chances for interaction, for having a chat, for eating together outside, that kind of stuff.”

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It was a little like a never-ending block party, which did cause a few neighbors to complain about late-night noise. But Clays says that the group quickly adapted to solve any problems, and the process ended up making the block much closer than before.

“Creating a living street … is a huge opportunity to strengthen the social cohesion,” say Gysels and Deschamps. “The fact that they can use their streets as parks leads to much more intense contacts and often becomes the start of beautiful and interesting stories. Once the two month test period is over, these contacts stay.”

The experiment gave neighbors the opportunity to see what life would be like without cars. While some people found parking nearby, others deliberately parked their cars out of easy reach, on the other side of the major roads that circle the central part of Ghent.

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“They engaged themselves not to use their car for two months—a small experiment in mobility,” says Clays, who doesn’t own a car. “Pretty interesting. We don’t know yet the effects of the experiment. But I think it might be a wakeup call that they don’t need that car as much as they think.”

“One of the main strategic questions of this experiment is how we can organize our daily lives without using our cars as much as we do today,” say Gysels and Deschamps. “If we can, fewer cars will be needed and we can put them at distance. In order to regain public parking space and turn these into more livable places—with slides, petanque courts, pop-up bars, and picnic benches—the inhabitants search for suitable alternatives to put their cars.”

Ultimately, the experiment is designed to lead to support for more permanent car-free streets. But it’s a slow process. “This was just a test, and basically we’ve seen that it can work very well,” says Clays.

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On Clays’s street, it also led to a few immediate changes in public space. “The artificial grass on our street attracted little soccer players from every neighborhood,” he says. “First 10 people, then 20, then it was like a street soccer field for Ghent.” After neighbors started to complain, they realized they could put artificial turf on a concrete playing field around the corner—and even though the rest of the project has been taken down, the new field remains.

“When you do something like this, you can’t predict all of the effects,” he says. “What’s interesting about the experiment, if you just react to the effect, you can actually do something that really matters. Almost no parks around here are designed for playing soccer. That was one thing that improved through this.”

It’s the type of experiment that is becoming more common. In South Korea, the “Ecomobility Festival” went even farther, removing cars from an entire neighborhood. The same thing will happen in Johannesburg, South Africa, this fall.

“Cities are the laboratories of the future,” say Deschamps and Gysels. “We advise cities to get together temporary networks of engaged people—frontrunners from society—who can challenge and inspire everyone in the city.”

Here are some more pictures

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Click here to read the original article from Fast Company Magazine

Adele Peters is a staff writer at Co.Exist who focuses on sustainable design. Previously, she worked with GOOD, BioLite, and the Sustainable Products and Solutions program at UC Berkeley. You can reach her at apeters at fastcompany dot com.

Practicing Non-Judgment

By Leo Babauta

We go through our day judging our experiences, other people, ourselves: this is good, this is bad. If all goes well, most of it will be good, but more than we realize, we dislike certain experiences, things about people, about ourselves.

We “like” online comments by others, or pages on the Internet. We give a thumbs up or thumbs down to movies, to restaurant experiences, songs. It’s ingrained in our thinking processes.

What would it be like to drop all of that judging as good and bad?

What would it be like to simply experience something, without judgment?

Try it now: sit here in this moment, and don’t think about whether it is good or bad … just observe the sensations of the moment. Don’t think about those sensations, just experience them.

These sensations are just phenomena in the world, happening without any good or bad intention, just happening. They aren’t happening “to” us, nor are they there “for” us. They just happen, without thinking about us as the center of the universe.

What I’ve noticed, when I experience anger, frustration, disappointment … is that I am judging my experiences (and others, and myself) based on whether they are what I want, whether they are good for me or not. But why am I at the center of the universe? What about the other person? What about the rest of the universe? If I drop away my self-centeredness, I no longer have reason for frustration. The experiences are just happening, and have nothing to do with me. They are neither good nor bad, they’re just happening.

Now, I realize we can’t do this all the time — as humans, it’s part of our experience to judge. And that’s OK. I’m simply suggesting that, some of the time, we drop the judgment and just experience. Just see what that’s like. And be OK with that too.

Click here to read the original article from Zen Habits.

tell me what you eat

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Is there such a thing as TV addiction? According to this article from the Huffington Post there is. And if you are binge watching TV, you could be an addict without even knowing it.

Maybe watching less TV and reading more books could be a good New Year Resolution to jot down your list for 2015, just like the rich and successful do, according to Tom Corley, author of the book Rich Habits, The Daily Success Habits of Wealthy Individuals. Or you could use the time to go out and walk, and get some exercise. Even sleeping is better.

Read the article, make some decisions, change some habits, make your life better.

Half Of All Adult Americans Now Admit To Binge-Watching TV

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Mobile TV Watching

We are becoming a nation of blue-faced zombies, hunkered down in front of our screens and watching our stories.

Fifty-percent of adults now identify as binge-viewers, meaning they’re watching multiple episodes of a TV show back-to-back, according to a new study of 1,000 adults with pay TV subscriptions released by accounting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers. The percentage was even higher for those under 35.

More than half of survey respondents admitted they binged more frequently in 2014 than they did last year, and 60 percent said they string three or more episodes together at least once a month. More than half of millennials say they do so daily or weekly.

Netflix popularized binge watching, a fact the company is proud of, but it’s not just Netflix fueling this trend. The survey notes that an explosion of quality drama on cable, Netflix and other streaming sites is driving more viewership.

Sixty-one percent of those surveyed agreed with the statement, “there are too many shows to watch, and not enough time to watch them.”

“They are binge-viewing just to keep up,” Matt Lieberman, director of PwC’s entertainment, media and communications practice, told The Huffington Post in an emailed statement.

Binge watchers are also big proponents of the second-screen: Sixty-two percent of the people surveyed use their mobile phones while they’re watching TV.

Viewers are also turning to multiple outlets just to access the shows they want, according to Lieberman. If you want to power through “The Good Wife,” for instance, you might need a Hulu Plus subscription because it’s not available on Netflix. If you’re looking for “Orange is the New Black,” on the other hand, you need Netflix. In other words, people are willing to pay extra to access as many shows as possible, even if they’re overwhelmed by the choices.

“We heard stories of consumers filling up their DVRs with their favorite series and also starting/stopping online subscription services just to get to their favorite content,” Lieberman said.

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Responses to PwC’s recent survey indicate that more and more cable subscribers are also signing up for Netflix subscriptions.

As Netflix subscriptions rise — the service saw a 20 percent increase in paid U.S. subscriptions this year — pay TV’s subscriptions are falling. PwC notes that there was a 6 percent drop in cable subscriptions in 2014 for those under the age of 35. Middle-aged folks, 35-49 years-old, didn’t cut the cord, though. And there was about a 1 percent uptick in subscriptions for those between 50 and 59 years old.

Though they’re not rapidly cutting the cord now, respondents to the PwC survey indicated they’re interested in jumping ship down the line: Only 42 percent expect that they’ll have cable TV service in 10 years.

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The future of cable according to the PwC survey.

2014-2015-calendar-hero

Se acaba el 2014, y con esto llega el momento de que hagas tus propósitos para el 2015. Mientras revisas tus propósitos incumplidos que hiciste hace un año y los vuelves a copiar en tu nueva lista, no olvides agregar éste como #1: Mejorar mi salud física, emocional y espiritual.

Solo que ésta vez, ahora sí, tómate 15 minutos y cúmplelo.

Sí, solo bastan 15 minutos al día, divididos en tres secciones de 5 minutos cada una,  para que mejores tu salud, tu estado de ánimo, y tu productividad. ¿No tienes tiempo? Esas son excusas. Todos tenemos 15 minutos. Ve menos TV, no leas el periódico, báñate en menos tiempo (y ahorra agua), pero no dejes de hacer esto:

 

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5 minutos de Meditación.

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No te preocupes por la técnica. No busques libros ni información en internet. Mantenlo sencillo. Busca un lugar aislado y silencioso. Siéntante cómodamente. Cierra tus ojos. Trata de poner tu mente en blanco, y concéntrate solo en tu respiración. Cuando inevitablemente tu mente empiece a distraerte de éste sencillo ejercicio con pensamientos de tu vida cotidiana (dígase problemas), trata de calmarla y de ponerla en blanco, y vuelve a escuchar tu respiración.

 

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5 minutos de Tabata.

300 movie backround

Tabata es una técnica Japonesa de ejercitarte al máximo en poco tiempo. Consiste en 8 períodos de ejercicio intenso de 20 segundos, con 10 segundos de descanso absoluto entre ellos.  Cualquier ejercicio es bueno: Sentadillas, Lagartijas, Abdominales, Palomas, Trotar en el mismo lugar, Brincos. Con 4 minutos de ejercicios explosivos será suficiente para que hagas circular el torrente sanguíneo que oxigena tu cuerpo, y te quedará un minuto completo para recuperarte antes del siguiente bloque.

Ve éstos sencillos videos para que te des algunas ideas:

 

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5 minutos de Gratitud.

Gratitude-Journal-Step-2

5 minutos de Gratitud. Asegúrate de tener papel y lápiz. Escribe 3 cosas por las que das gracias hoy y anótalas en tu Diario de la Gratitud. Está comprobado que las personas que practican la gratitud (sí, la gratitud es un ejercicio que se practica) son más felices. Si de casualidad llegas a anotar el nombre de alguna persona en tu lista de hoy, no olvides hacérselo saber.

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Si ordenamos bien nuestro tiempo todos podemos encontrar 15 minutos al día. Tú también. Cuida tu cuerpo, cuida tu mente, cuida tu alma, y el 2015 será tu mejor año hasta hoy.

9 Meal Schedules: When to Eat to Lose Weight

When to Eat to Lose Weight

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Are you a breakfast fanatic, an early luncher or a late-night snacker?

The answer to that question may have greater implications for health than one might think. Although what we put in our bodies matters most, when we choose to eat that food also has an impact on how our bodies will process it and our likelihood of gaining weight from it.

“The timing of when we eat can influence body weight,” said Constance Brown-Riggs, a registered dietitian and spokewoman for the National Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Studies done on mice in which food intake can be controlled for extended periods have demonstrated this, she said.

The most important aspect of any diet is keeping overall calorie consumption in check, particularly for those with diabetes or who are trying to lose weight. But the schedule people follow in eating meals and snacks can help them either stay on track with their diets, or be more easily swayed off course, Brown-Riggs said.

Here’s a look at nine eating-schedule habits, and how they might help or hurt.

Eating a big breakfast

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An old adage advised people to “eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a queen and dinner like a pauper.” This may be the best way plan daily meals, according to Brown-Riggs.

Eating a big meal in the morning gives the body plenty of energy to start the day, and sets the pace of metabolism for the rest of the day. It helps people avoid feeling so hungry at subsequent meals that it derails their diets, Brown-Riggs said.

But just be careful to eat a big breakfast that is filled with healthy foods healthy foods, such as one serving of lean protein, whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Don’t load up on too many carbohydrates first thing in the morning, though, because it could lead to sluggishness later in the day, she said.

Skipping breakfast

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It’s normal for people to have different preferences about when they eat, and some people say they just don’t like to eat breakfast. But regardless of how opposed the body seems to eating in the morning, breakfast really is most important meal of the day.

Because these personal preferences are also mostly shaped by habit, they can be changed by building new habits, Brown-Riggs said. Start out by eating a single piece of fruit or toast to get the body comfortable digesting something early in the morning.

Breakfast should ideally be eaten within an hour of getting up, she said, and a big meal is not needed to jump-start the body’s metabolism.

People who skip breakfast are a third more likely to be obese, Brown-Riggs said.

A long, large lunch

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The traditional European lifestyle, in which people take a long lunch break to consume the day’s main meal, might partly explain why Europe’s obesity levels are lower than those of the U.S, Brown-Riggs said.

Eating a large lunch is better for the body than eating a big dinner, she explained, because it means that calories consumed throughout the day are more evenly distributed, and satiety is also more even throughout the day.

But be careful about eating too much at any meal, Brown-Riggs said, because that can lead to weight gain even if you reduce calories consumed at other meals.

Snack-size meals throughout the day

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Another often-used dieting trick is to eat small snacks throughout the day, in lieu of larger meals. This is supposed to keep portion sizes in check, while maintaining fullness throughout the day.

This strategy can work well for some people, as long as they stay within their bounds for target calorie consumption, Brown-Riggs said. Some dietitians even advocate that the small, constant meals rev up metabolism and encourage weight loss, she said.

However, the main problem is that “people don’t know what ‘small’ means,” and so they tend to overshoot their calorie limits, and wind up eating more than they should, Brown-Riggs said.

A big dinner

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In American culture, people often eat their biggest meal of the day at dinnertime. While people may like the idea of friends or family members gathering to discuss the day’s events and share a feast, unfortunately, that’s not what’s best for health.

People who reserve their biggest meal for the end of the day may tend to eat less before that point.

“If you go into dinner ravenous, the tendency is to over-eat,” Brown-Riggs said.

A better option for people who want to keep their dinnertime tradition is to reduce portion sizes. This can accomplish the goals of both getting in some bonding time, as well as maintaining a healthy weight, Brown-Riggs said. People can redistribute those extra dinner calories to breakfast and lunch, to maintain a steadier level of fullness throughout the day.

Three meals with three snacks in between

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According to Brown-Riggs, this eating schedule is the golden ticket for health, though as always, it’s critical that the total calories and fat consumed are kept at or under individual daily goals.

“Most important is the minimum of three meals daily,” which keeps you feeling full the longest, Brown-Riggs said, adding that “how you divide up your calories depends on your individual schedule.”

If the body goes more than four or five hours without eating, this will effect metabolism and how likely overindulgence is at the next meal, she said.

Brown-Riggs said she likes the plan of three main meals with snacks in between because this plan takes people’s busy schedules into account. When it’s not possible to sit down for lunch until 3 p.m., having a light snack available can stave off hunger. This schedule keeps you in more control of the food choices you make, she said.

Stopping eating at a certain time

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Some diet plans tempt participants with an offer that they can eat whatever they want, they just can’t eat after a certain time of day, usually in the late afternoon or early evening. The assumption is that this plan will lower overall calorie consumption, but in all likelihood, people will compensate by eating more calories earlier in the day, Brown-Riggs said.

Diets that rely on gimmicks to help people lose weight often don’t present a long-term solution to calorie consumption, she said.

Late-night eating

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A big problem with eating late at night is that it doesn’t allow for the body to be active and burn most of the calories consumed within hours of a meal. Going to bed soon after eating means that more calories will be converted to fat, Brown-Riggs said. She suggested staying up for at least two or three hoursafter a meal, and one hour after a snack.

Additionally, staying up should mean maintaining some level of activity, not zoning out in front of the TV. Sitting in the “recliner is the same as going into the bed,” Brown-Riggs said.

The recliner is where a lot of people tend to get into trouble, as there is a tendency to relax at the end of the day, and to indulge in snack foods.

“For the average person coming into my office with weight problems, the biggest problem is after-dinner snacking.”

She added that for people who stay up very late, a snack at midnight is a fine choice, as long as it fits into the overall calorie plan, and the consumer is planning on staying up for long enough to digest it.

Fasting diets

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Any diet that involves fasting for an extended time is not likely to be very effective. While it can lead to weight loss in the short-run, as soon as the dieter starts eating normally again, he or she will most likely regain all of the weight that was lost. One reason for this is that the weight lost comes from losing fluids, not fat.

“Fasting is not a means of controlling one’s weight,” Brown-Riggs said.

Even more problematic is the tendency for people to be disheartened when the weight is regained, and simply give up on dieting all together, she said.

Pass it on: In order to best control your weight, eat three meals daily, and be prepared with three snacks.

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